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208 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct., 1963
species (chilensis and distinguendus) nest inconspicuously In
or under rotted wood as other species do at the northern limit.
In summary, Argentina may be commended to anyone inter-
ested in ants, both for the solid foundation already laid down
by previous workers and for the nature of its fauna.
Two European Arachnids New to the United States
William B. Much more, Department of Biology,
University of Rochester
It is well known that a number of European animals have be-
come established in North America. Seaports such as New
York, Halifax, St, John's and Seattle are known to have con-
siderable populations of such exotics in their environs (cf.
Lindroth, 1957), It has also become obvious in recent years
that the inland city of Rochester, New York, has been a favor-
able locality for the establishment of European invertebrate ani-
mals, including the snail, Cepaea nemoralis (cf, Blakeslee,
1945) ; the chilopod, Chaetcchelene vesuviaim (cL Crabill,
1955) ; various terrestrial isopods (cf, Muchniore, 1957); two
small beetles (cf. Cooper, 1961, 1962) ; and the European hor-
net, Vespa crabro (personal observation). Recently, another
remarkable introduction has been discovered in the vicinity of
Rochester, namely the opilionid, Trogulus tricarinatus Linne
(Opiliones : Trogulidae),
During the course of routine Berlese funnel separations in
search of pseiidoscorpions and terrestrial isopods, this distinc-
tive arachnid was found in a sample taken on April 2S T 1962
from beneath a log in deciduous woodland in Ellison Park,
Monroe County, New York. With the aid of Roewer (1923)
the specimen was identified as an adult of Trogulus tricarinatus,
a species native to south and central Europe, and also found in
southern England (Bristowe, 1949). It was then sent to Prof.
C. J. Goodnight who was good enough to check the identification.
Subsequently four more specimens were collected in Ellison
Park, On May 26 ? 1962 an adult and a nymph were taken
Lxxiv] ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 209
from beneath the original log. The adult, like the first one
found, is about 6 mm long and nearly black in color, apparently
a mature individual that had survived the winter. The nymph
is about 3 mm long and cream colored, and appears to be a
third instar, according to Pabst (1953). On July 22, 1962 two
adults were recovered from beneath a log some 500 feet from
the first location. Slightly less than 6 mm long and light tan
in color, these had probably hatched in the spring of 1962 and
had become adult but not fully colored by the date of collection.
With the trogulids were found a number of other invertebrates,
including the uncommon trichoniscid isopod, Hylonisctts ripa-
rim, which is also native to central Europe (cf. Muchmore,
1957). It seems obvious from these facts that the specimens of
T. irkarinatits were part of a population that has in some way
been introduced and has found the Rochester area hospitable
enough to allow its establishment.
It is not certain how and when the introduction of these
immigrants might have occurred. There is, however, a nursery
about a mile away from the collection site and nearby there is
a well-travelled road, along which trash from human habitations
has been dumped at various times. This situation is reminiscent
of that in which I found H. riparius in Onondaga County, New
York (ci 1957, p. 79), It is probable, therefore, that the
exotics were introduced along with nursery stock into the
vicinity of the park and then transferred to their present loca-
tion along with yard or garden refuse.
There have been suggestions that the introduction of these
animals has been relatively recent, on the assumption that C. R.
Crosby and S. C. Bishop, who collected arachnids intensively in
this area, certainly would not have overlooked so unusual a
creature as Trogulus. I can, however, find no record in the
works of these arachuologists of their having collected in or
near Ellison Park (cf. esp. Bishop, 1949). If the population oc-
cupies only a relatively small area, as is likely, it could easily
have been by-passed by even the most expert collector. It is
not inconceivable that many similar, undiscovered populations
of this and other European invertebrates exist elsewhere in the
210 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Oct, 1963
It is appropriate here to mention also the occurrence in
Rochester of the central European pseudoscorpion, Ron cits
lubricus ■ L. Koch (Chelonethida : Neobisiidae) (cf. Beier, 1932).
The first specimen was taken in the greenhouse of the Univer-
sity of Rochester on June 27, 1956, It was on the underside of a
board partially embedded in the earth under a greenhouse bench.
Subsequently, other specimens were found under boards or flats
in the same room, in company, at various times, with a variety
of greenhouse inhabitants, including isopods, mites, spiders,
centipedes, millipedes, collembola and snails. The only other
pseudoscorpion observed in the greenhouse has been the com-
mon, introduced European species, Chthoniiis tetrachelafus
Preyssler. On one occasion a specimen of R. lubricus was dis-
covered with an oribatid mite (Oribotriiia?) in its chelicerae,
Roncus lubricus was observed in the greenhouse from time to
time until June, 1958. Altogether four specimens (2 males and
2 females) were collected and perhaps another four or five
were seen. The population then disappeared, apparently eradi-
cated, along with undesirable sowbugs and slugs, by the con-
tinued heavy application of pesticides.
This species, unlike C. tetrachelafus, has never been en-
countered outside the greenhouse and is, so far as we know now,
not a naturalized resident in this country.
Beier, M„ 1932, Tierreich 57: 1-258.
Bishop, S, C, 1949. Proc. Rochester Acad. Sci. 9: 159-235,
Blakeslee, C L., 1945. Nautilus 59 : 44^47.
Bristowe, W. S., 1949. J. Anim. EcoL 18: 100-114.
Cooper, K, W„ 1961- Ent. News 72: 90-92.
, 1962. Ent. News 73: 187-190.
Crabill, R, E„ 1955. Ent. News 66: 248-249.
Lindroth, C H., 1957. The Faunal connections between Europe and
North America. Wiley, New York. 344 p.
Muchmore, W. B«, 1957. J, Washington Acad. Sci. 47; 78-83,
Pabst, W., 1953. Zool. Jahrb. AM, f. Syst 82: 1-46.
Roewer, C. F., 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde. Gustav Fischer,
Jena. 1116 p.